EU legislation lays down a priority order of what constitutes the best overall environmental option in waste policy. In accordance with The European Union’s Waste Framework Directive (1975/442/EEC), which is currently the main framework directive on waste management, there is
a five-step hierarchy of options in descending order:
1. Prevention: The amount of waste generated must be reduced. Waste prevention is a priority.
2. Re-use: is the second most acceptable option.
3. Recycling: the process of converting waste materials into new materials and objects.
4. Energy recovery: energy recovery from waste.
5. Disposal / landfill: is the least acceptable option which implies the safe disposal of waste that cannot be processed using the first four options.
In April 2017, the European Commission adopted a new “waste package” that sets common EU targets for
- Recycling 65-70% of municipal waste by 2030;
- Recycling 75-80% of packaging waste by 2030;
- Limiting the share of landfilling to 5-10% of municipal waste by 2030.
In addition, entry charges for vehicles will be applicable for all landfill sites.
Such an integrated approach to waste management implies involving various types of enterprises.
In line with the European Union’s Waste Framework Directives, we have developed a Program for creating a regional cluster of innovative enterprises that would be involved in the design and construction of high-tech facilities for the recycling and processing of solid municipal and agricultural waste in the territory of Bessarabia, a region located in the south of Odessa Oblast.
Within the framework of the Program, the following innovative technologies will be developed and implemented:
1. Recycling 100% of municipal solid waste without landfilling.
2. High temperature pyrolysis (gasification) of hazardous waste and waste oils to produce synthesis gas.
3. Second-generation biofuels production from agricultural waste.
4. Studies have been conducted on the use of ethanol and methanol to replace gasoline and diesel fuel in agricultural machines.
5. Innovative technologies for producing road construction materials from secondary materials and waste by-products have been developed.
The following facilities are to be built and put into operation:
1. 4 municipal solid waste sorting lines that would produce secondary materials and alternative fuels.
2. A plant for recycling secondary materials (waste paper, polyethylene, etc.) into finished products.
3. A plant for the production of road construction materials from secondary materials such as sand, glass waste and rubber mulch made from recycled tires.
4. A plant for the production of ethanol and bioethanol from wheat straw and rice straw.
5. A syngas-fuelled combined heat and power plant.
6. A plant for high-temperature pyrolysis of hazardous waste.